At the western frontier, the Ahom Kingdom of Assam had successfully resisted the mighty Mughal expansion for many generations. Likewise, the once powerful Twipra Kingdom of Tripura too fought Islamic conquests relentlessly. And on the eastern frontier, the Kingdom of Manipur waged many wars with the Burmese Kingdom. The Ahom dynasty finally ended with the Burmese invasion of Assam in 1817, which was then subsequently annexed by the British East India Company. After that, it wasn’t difficult for the British to conquer the other Kingdoms that had grown weaker due to consistent wars, and the other smaller fiefdoms and chieftains of different tribes and communities scattered all across the nearby hills and valleys too fell under the Union Jack.
Hence due to the vast number of different ethnic groups, Manipur is no stranger to inter-ethnic clashes, with some of the prominent ones in the recent past being the Meitei-Pangan clash, the Thadou-Maring clash that escalated into a larger Kuki-Naga clash, the Kuki-Paite clash and the Meitei-Tangkhul clash with some of these clashes even seeing casualties of more than a thousand. Hence some of these ethnic groups have their own insurgent groups that run parallel governments in their respective regions of dominion.